Stone lanterns were used for decoration of Japanese gardens and courtyards since the Azuchi-Momoyama period in the late 16th century. At that time, because of the tea ceremony exhibition, stone lanterns were often used as an open-air decoration in the tea room and widely used in courtyard decoration.
On the earliest stone lanterns, there are several basic components:
1. Baoding: It is called Baozhu (quasi Baozhu) in Japanese. It is an onion-like shape on the top of a stone lantern.
2. Building roof: Japanese called “li”, the roof part of the stone lantern lamp house. Hexagons and quadrilaterals are the mainstream, but there are also round “snow-seeing shapes”. The line of the polygon extends from the lower part of the orb, and the end is protruding, which is called “fern hand”.
3. Lamphouse: Called “fire bag” in Japanese, the main body of stone lanterns, some decorative stone lantern lamp houses never ignite.
4. Building body: It is called “Zhongtai” in Japanese. The bottom part of the stone lantern lamp room is usually decorated with lotus seats.
5. Pole: The long pillar at the bottom of the stone lantern lamp. Snow-see-shaped stone lanterns will omit this part. Generally cylindrical, but also four-sided, six-sided, and octahedral. There may be nodular ornaments, as well as figures and animals.
6. Foundation: The bottom part of the stone lantern. Hexagons and circles are the mainstream, and there are also animals with the shape of auspicious animals as the base.
The above is the basic structure of the early stone lanterns. With the development of time, the stone lanterns have also evolved into various styles. Generally divided into pedestal stone lanterns, buried stone lanterns, movable stone lanterns, snow lanterns stone lanterns, emblem stone lanterns, wild face stone lanterns, and so on.
1. Stone lanterns with pedestals. Standing lanterns are the most common stone lanterns. There are pedestals and carved flowers on the hats. There are many categories under it.
2. Buried stone lanterns are stone lanterns without a base, that is, stone lanterns without a base and directly inserted into the soil, generally in the following categories.
3. Movable stone lanterns can also be called stone lanterns. There is no pole and foundation. Although they can be placed on the ground, they are difficult to fix. Among them are the Sanguang stone lanterns, which are very small. “Language” refers to the light-transmitting port of the fire bag. This stone lantern usually simulates the shape of the sun, moon, and stars. Language stone lanterns are often placed near the water and are also seen in the Osmanthus Palace.
4. Xuejian Stone Lantern has no pole and middle stage, so it is very low. It is mainly used to illuminate the water surface. Commonly used are three-legged stone lanterns, one of which is on land and the other two feet are in the water. There are also four-legged stone lanterns.
5. Huizhen stone lanterns are two-legged, mostly placed at the water’s edge, one on the land and the other in the water.
6. Yemian stone lantern refers to a stone lantern made of rough, unpolished stone.
The earliest prototype of a stone lantern was a lamp that was lit when offering to the Buddha in ancient China, that is, the form of offering a lamp. It expresses the meaning of “standing bright”. Stone lanterns are often used as decorations in gardens and courtyards. Stone lanterns are also a kind of plastic art. Various granite stones are used to create visible and tangible stone carving artworks with a certain space.
1.>>>The history of stone lanterns<<<
The earliest lanterns were utensils made to prevent the wind from blowing off the lights. The lanterns used in the indoor shrines are wooden frames, while the outdoor ones have solid stone lanterns, which are generally light towers standing on the ground.
Chinese stone lanterns appeared in the Han Dynasty at the latest, prevailing from the Wei, Jin, Southern, and Northern Dynasties to the Tang Dynasty. They were built in temples, temples, gardens, etc., and gradually became rare after the Five Dynasties. From Wei Jin to Tang, Buddhism prevailed, and the style of stone lanterns also developed. Some stone lanterns handed down in temples built at that time can still be seen today. The earliest surviving stone lantern in China is the northern Qi stone lantern of Tongzi Temple in Taiyuan, Shanxi
2.>>>The development of stone lanterns<<<
1. North Korea
During the Three Kingdoms period, stone lanterns were introduced to the Korean Peninsula from China. Stone lanterns on the Korean Peninsula were first seen at Mireuksa Temple in Iksan, Baekje.
Stone lanterns in Vietnam are mostly seen in Buddhist monasteries and large temples of Chinese tradition.
The above is the basic structure of the early stone lanterns. With the development of time, the stone lanterns have also evolved into various styles. Nowadays, the stone lantern has been developed into a solar stone lantern with light control. The chip stores energy lights up in the dark, naturally extinguishes during the day, and changes naturally day and night.